In: Belton PS, Taylor JRN (eds) Proceedings of the AFRIPRO workshop on the proteins of sorghum and millets: enhancing nutritional and functional properties for Africa. (ejournal.icrisat.org), Reed JD (1995) Nutritional toxicology of tannins and related polyphenols in forage legumes. April 2-4, 2003m Pretoria, South Africa. 6. MStV-S is the most serious on sorghum growvirus ing in peninsular India. Washington DC, USA, Vavilov NI (1992) Origin and geography of cultivated plants. Difficult to remove weeds from tree row. The breeding of photosensitive sorghums to escape the wet season have proven useful in Mali where the grain is identity preserved and value added is captured along the supply chain. Research on manipulating the content and type of PA in forage legumes is justified because they are associated with non-bloating legumes, lower soluble non-protein nitrogen in silage, and improved efficiency of protein utilization. Napier grass and hybrid (Pennisetum) Napier or elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) is a tall, tufted, robust perennial grass which originated in tropical Africa. These myths are largely extended by scientists who read review articles where old data are taken out of context by reviewers and they have a significant impact on utilization of sorghum. 8. Common names of sorghum include wild grain, grain sorghum, forage sorghum, sweet sorghum, broom millet, broomcorn, milo, jowar, kafir corn, guinea corn and cholam, among many others (USDA ARS 2015; PlantNet). Analysis of postprandial changes of the Lys/TEAA and Thr/TEAA molar ratios confirmed that Lys was the first limiting amino acid. J Anim Sci 73:1516–1528, Reynolds MP, Quilligan E, Aggarwal PK, Bansal KC, Cavalieri AJ, Chapman SC, Chapotin SM, Datta SK, Duveiller E, Gill KS, Jagadish KSV, Joshi AK, Koehler A-K, Kosina P, Krishnan S, Lafitte R, Mahala RS, Muthurajan R, Paterson AH, Prasanna BM, Rakshit S, Rosegrant MW, Sharma I, Singh RP, Sivasankar S, Vadex V, Valluru R, Vara Prasad PV, Yadav OP (2016) An integrated approach to maintaining cereal roductivity under climate change. J SAT Agric Res 10. The addition of chickpea and peanuts improved the quality of kisra a staple food of Sudan. Although a perennial plant by nature, grain sorghum is … Most sorghums do not contain condensed tannins, but all contain phenolic acids. Economic importance of viruses.pdf. Sorghum 2. The importance of economics shows up in our daily lives and in society at large. In the growth trial, 10 pigs, individually fed form 20 to 94 kg, received grain-soybean meal diets based on each grain except NK300. Wiley, New York, USA, pp 191–223, Nagaraj N, Basavaraj G, Parthasarathy Rao P, Bantilan C, Haldar S (2013) Sorghum and pearl millet economy of India—future outlook and options. Grasses economic importance stems from several areas, including food production, industry, and lawns. It is especially common in the eastern, southeastern and south­ western grain sorghum areas. Flavan-3-ols of up to 8–10 units have been separated and quantitatively analyzed. It is quite obvious that many kinds of animal coat-color as well as sorghum are indispensable to the Bodi society. Bengalgram 6. Cambridge University Press India Pvt. When the same accessions were evaluated in Isabela, Puerto Rico, 100% of the accessions from Mali, 43% of the accessions from Uganda, and 28% of the accessions from Sudan exhibited a resistant response. Sorghum Phytochemicals and Their Potential Impact on Human Health. Despite relatively high transport costs, seasonal, fresh processed sweet sorghum is found to produce FC at costs competitive with corn grain derived FC. Longman Scientific & Technical, London, UK 403 pp, Duodu K, Taylor JR, Belton P, Hamaker B (2003) Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility. It is high in carbohydrates, with 10 percent protein and 3.4 percent fat, and contains calcium and small amounts of iron, vitamin B 1, and niacin. Ethanol production is now sugar/starch based, but use of these carbohydrates is limited; they are also required as a food and feed source. The Free State and Mpumalanga provinces are the largest contributors to the area planted to sorghum and sorghum production. Finger millet or Ragi - Minor millets 1. Individual landraces were found to carry a high level of within-population diversity and heterozygosity, and between-population diversity was equally high. In trial 2, conducted with 50-kg pigs fitted with T-cannulas at the terminal ileum, digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy, N and all amino acids again averaged higher (P greater than .01) for the low tannin sorghums than for the high tannin sorghums, whether measured at the end of the small intestine or over the total digestive tract. Though sorghum cultivation is reported from more than 100 countries, only eight countries have over 1 million ha area under sorghum, which together contribute more than 60 % of world sorghum production. That is, the color polymorphism that arose in the process of domestication is needed for the cultural phenomena of human beings as well as the biological ones of animals and plants. 7. Proanthocyanidins are considered to be non-toxic because they are not absorbed, but they are associated with lesions of the gut mucosa. Sorghum usually grows poorly on sandy soils, except where a heavy textured sub-soil is present. Sorghum can produce about 3–4 tonnes jaggery and 4 tonnes syrup per hectare. Economic Importance of Weeds Weeds have certain effects in agriculture, which are mostly in the form of different harmful results but somehow there are also some beneficial effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:1333–1335, Anglani C (1998) Sorghum for human food – A review. Children consumed 100-150 kcal/kg body weight/day. This is a preview of subscription content, Actell JD, Kirleis AW, Hassen MM, D’Croz Mason N, Mertz ET, Munch L (1981) Digestibility of sorghum proteins. All the accessions from Ethiopia were susceptible to anthracnose when evaluated in Isabela, Puerto Rico. World's Best PowerPoint Templates - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. Hydrolyzable tannins are polymers of gallic or ellagic acid esterified to a core molecule, commonly glucose or a polyphenol such as catechin. Effect of depithing. Thus, highly digestible types may be limited to production in extremely dry environments where grain deterioration does not occur, i.e. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. INRA Editions Versailles, ISBN 2738011586, 306 pp, Serna-Saldivar S, Rooney LW (1995) Structure and chemistry of sorghum and millets. These fractions may offer similar health benefits commonly associated with fruits. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect. Previous research (Bennett, A.S., Anex, R.P., 2008. J Cereal Sci 44:236–251, Eggum BO, Monowar L, Bach Knudsen KE, Munch L, Axtell JD (1983) Nutritional quality of sorghum and sorghum foods from Sudan. However, the identification of anthracnose resistant germplasm from many diverse regions could result in the identifi-cation of new sources of genetic variation for resistance. It is the only viable food grain for many of the world’s most food insecure people. Also, greater genetic variation for resistance could be present in regions with a high frequency of resistant germplasm. In trial 1, conducted with noncannulated, 25-kg pigs, digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and N averaged for the low tannin sorghums (TAM680 and G766-W) were higher (P greater than .01) than the corresponding digestibilities averaged for the high tannin sorghums (Ga615 and NK300). Origin, Spread and Importance Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is the fifth most important cereal crop in the world after wheat (Triticum aestivum L), rice (Oryza sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Food plant - Rice . Phytochemistry 65:1199–1221, Badi S, Pedersen B, Monowar L, Eggum BO (1990) The nutritive value of new and traditional sorghum and millet foods from Sudan. Corn and the low tannin sorghums, averaged together, had similar digestibilities for most nutrients. S. bicolor is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia, and is the fifth-most important cereal crop grown in the world. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN, USA, pp 69–124, Sipos B, Reczey J, Somorai Z, Kadar Z, Dienes D, Reczey K (2009) Sweet sorghum as feedstock for ethanol production: enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated bagasse. Search reports, statistics & slideshows on Agricultural Products. In the early stages of the plants' growth, some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine, and nitrates which are lethal to grazing animals. For human consumption, the gluten -free grain is usually ground into a meal that … Eight of the Eritrean landraces grouped with other sorghums in the world collection, particularly those from Ethiopia/Sudan and India or of the durra and caudatum races, but most Eritrean sorghums clustered in a separate subgroup. Mean absorption and retention of nitrogen (+/- SD) from 26 six-day sorghum dietary periods were 46 +/- 17% and 14 +/- 10% of intake, respectively (corresponding preceding casein control values: 81 +/- 5% and 38 +/- 3%). non waxy or high amylose) cultivars of other grains, typically 25-28% amylose and 75-72% amylopectin *Sorghum starch resistant to gelatinisation Crop Sci 54:1571–1584, Rao BD, Patil JV, Nirmal Reddy K, Soni VK, Srivastava G (2014) Sorghum, an emerging cash crop. Sorghum is the second most important cereal after maize with 22% of total cereal area. Green gram 4. 2. In the present study was examined the nutritive value of different sorghum and millet based baby foods. N balance data indicated that utilization of absorbed N was not reduced in pigs fed the high tannin sorghums. The continent produces about 20 million tonnes of sorghum per annum, about one-third of the world crop. These results indicate that a great deal of germplasm diversity and genetic novelty are available in Eritrean sorghums, and that SSR markers can contribute to the wise use of this diversity for sorghum study and improvement. Plasma amino acids were determined in eleven children after 16 days of sorghum consumption. To screen groundnut germplasms for their tolerance of acid soils, Al-toxicity and Ca and P deficiencies. Efforts to breed mold resistant sorghums have been relatively unsuccessful. Without such variations, it is doubtful that the Bodi could exist socially and culturally. Sorghum Seed Market: Global TOP Manufacturers Analysis 2017-2021 - The Global Sorghum Seed Market Research Report 2017 provides a detailed Sorghum Seed industry overview along with the analysis of industry’s gross margin, cost structure, consumption value and sale price. Vitamins and tryptophan, Review-Sorghum and millet phenols and antioxidants, Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility, Sorghum and the Millets: Their Composition and Nutritive Value, Production, transportation and milling costs of sweet sorghum as a feedstock for centralized bioethanol production in the upper Midwest, Niacin status of humans as affected by eating decorticated and whole-ground sorghum (Sorghum Gramineae) grain, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals, The nutritive value of new and traditional sorghum and millet food from Sudan, Protein Quality and Digestibility of Sorghum in Preschool Children: Balance Studies and Plasma Free Amino Acids, Nutrient Digestibility and Performance of Pigs Fed Sorghums Varying in Tannin Concentration, Nutritional Toxicology of Tannins and Related Polyphenols in Forage Legumes. A porridge formulation with a 30:40:30 mix of sorghum, maize and cassava respectively, has been shown to be the most acceptable combination. All subjects received both experimental treatments, made complete collections of urine and stools, and gave fasting blood samples at the ends of both experimental periods. The frequency of resistant germplasm varied based on country of origin with 80% of the accessions from Mali, 48% of the accessions from Uganda, 24% of the accessions from Sudan, and 7% of the accessions from Ethiopia exhibiting a resistance re-sponse. They can also reduce the yield of crop through […] Transactions of the ASABE 51(2), 603-613) indicates that fermentable carbohydrates (FC) can be produced at less expense from sweet sorghum than from corn grain. Grasses are, in human terms, perhaps the most economically important plant family. In spite of its economic importance, sorghum cropped area around the world has declined over the last four decades at a rate of over 0.15 million ha per year. The earliest known record of sorghum comes from an archeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, dated 8,000 B.C. Their folk genetics has been recently verified by animal geneticist, Nozawa (in press). Ensiled storage of high moisture sweet sorghum in bunkers can lead to significant losses of FC (>20%) and result in systems with net FC costs well above those of corn-derived FC. pp 1-25 | (ejournal.icrisat.org), Reddy BVS, Sharma HC, Thakur RP, Ramesh S, Rattunde F, Mgonja M (2006) Sorghum hybrid parents research at ICRISAT—strategies, status and Impacts. Sorghum 2.1. Performance was similar (P greater than .10) for animals fed the low tannin sorghums and those fed corn. All these factors have been shown to influence sorghum protein digestibility. food. The discoloration and softening of the grain reduces processing quality significantly. 5. 2) The cattle are named on the basis of their coat colors, and they are genealogically traced even over sixteen generations. The increasing cost of energy and finite oil and gas reserves has created a need to develop alternative fuels from renewable sources. Used in making various foods, feed, ethanol etc. Sorghum acts as a dietary staple for millions of people living in about 30 countries in the subtropical and semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia. Breads fermented for 18 h had higher vitamin-B12 and pantothenic acid levels but lower P content than unfermented breads. Fig 1 A stand of forage sorghum at Matopos Research Station in Bulawayo ii. J Anim Sci 53:1524–1537, Damania AB (2002) The Hindustan centre of origin of important plants. The lowest vitamin content was found in highly refined rice, containing only about 5% of the folate and 10% of the niacin present in brown rice. Proanthocyanidins are the most common type of tannin found in forage legumes. United States National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences (1982) United States Canadian Tables of Food Composition. No single climate generates grasslands; they develop in areas with wide ranges of rainfall (from semiarid to subhumid) and temperature. Sorghum is not considered breadmaking flour but the addition of 30% sorghum flour to wheat flour of 72% extraction rate produces a bread, evaluated as good to excellent. Sorghum bicolor that can be consulted. This study includes these additional costs and reevaluates sweet sorghum as a biocommodity feedstock. Little millet 3. The nutritional value of even the high tannin grains is acceptable when fed to livestock since they consume more sorghum to produce about the same amount of gain. Common millet 4. Poaceae - Poaceae - Economic and ecological importance: Grasses dominate large expanses of the middle of continents, such as the North American prairies, South American pampas, African veld, and Eurasian steppes. Several myths affect the perceived nutritional and processing quality of sorghum. It is used to make such foods as couscous, sorghum flour, porridge and molasses. In: Dendy DAV (ed) Sorghum and millets: chemistry and technology. Consumption of sorghum for food purposes is declining because of a change in food habits and consumer preference brought about by economic status, whereas use for animal feed and other industrial purposes is increasing. Pearl Origin, Spread and Importance Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is the fifth most important cereal crop in the world after wheat (Triticum aestivum L), rice (Oryza sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Now, we will discuss some of the economically important plants for each category. It is proposed that protein crosslinking may be the greatest factor that influences sorghum protein digestibility. To find out ameliorative measures for Ca and P deficiencies and Al-toxicity in groundnut to offset yield losses in acid soils. Kodo millet 9. c) Pulses: Rich in protein Economic important in cropping system Haulm is used as green manure Green pods used as vegetables 1. Technical Efficiency of Sorghum Production in Garu District of the Upper East Region, Ghana, Quantifying the agronomic performance of new grain sorghum hybrids for enhanced early-stage chilling tolerance, Modeling Climate Warming Impacts on Grain and Forage Sorghum Yields in Argentina, Integrated usage of synthetic and bio-fertilizers: an environment friendly approach to improve the productivity of sorghum, Use of genome editing technologies for genetic improvement of crops of tropical origin, Crop wild relatives as a genetic resource for generating low-cyanide, drought-tolerant Sorghum, Substitution of Zea mays by Sorghum bicolor on Performance and Gut Histo-Morphology of Ross 308 Broiler Chickens Aged 1–42 d, Semiautomated Feature Extraction from RGB Images for Sorghum Panicle Architecture GWAS, Genomic Designing for Climate Smart Sorghum, New candidate loci and marker genes on chromosome 7 for improved chilling tolerance in sorghum, Sorghum diseases and their management in cultivation: seedling, seed, panicle and foliar diseases, An integrated approach to maintaining cereal productivity under climate change, Future Outlook and Options for Target Crops: The Sorghum and Pearl millet Economy of India, Dynamics of value and trade channels of sorghum in India, An analysis of availability and utilization of sorghum grain in India, Recent advances in sorghum genetic enhancement research at ICRISAT, Factors Associated with Sorghum Cultivation under Rice Fallows, Changes in Area, Yield Gains, and Yield Stability of Sorghum in Major Sorghum-Producing Countries, 1970 to 2009, Genetics of post-flowering drought tolerance traits in post-rainy sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], Morphological and molecular diversity reveal wide variability among sorghum Maldandi landraces from India, Sorghum improvement (1980–2010): Status and way forward, Sorghum Hybrid Parents Research at ICRISAT-Strategies, Status, and Impacts, Sweet Sorghum as Feedstock for Ethanol Production: Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Steam-Pretreated Bagasse, Origin and Geography of Cultivated Plants, The origin and early cultivation of sorghums in Africa, The Hindustani Center of Origin of important plants, Traditional methods of processing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and pearl millet (Pennesetum americanum) grains in India, Sweet sorghum bagasse: A raw material for the production of chemical paper pulp. United States Department of Agriculture/Human Nutrition Information Service, Agriculture Handbook 8-20. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis are used to account for system variability and compare scenarios. Based on the results of the present investigation it is recommended that the use of brown bread for infants should not exceed ten percent wheat or sorghum bran as it affects the digestibility in a negative way. Dorofeyev VF (ed). It possess huge amount of carbohydrates, with 40.78% protein, 18.97% fat, 2.50% calcium and iron, vitamin B1, and nicotinic acid in small amounts. Economic Importance of weeds. Although there was no economic analysis done to study. Zn B and Mo nutrition of groundnut in calcareous and acid soils with special reference to oil yield in commercial groundnut and kernel filling in large seeded one. The sorghum in Ukraine is experiencing difficulties to develop for several reasons: - The margin is more important for sunflower in dry regions and for corn in humid regions. Total concentration of essential amino acids (TEAA) was low as were concentrations of lysine (Lys) and threonine (Thr). The center of origin of sorghum … Economic importance Plants . Rooney LW (2003) Overview: sorghum and millet food research failures and successes. Many sorghums are tannin free, have about the same levels of phytin and phytic acid as maize and other cereals and the digestibility is only slightly reduced compared to maize. In: Vilas A Tonapi, B Dayakar Rao and JV Patil (eds) Millets-promotion for food, feed, fodder, nutritional and environmental security. *Sorghum starch content lower than corn (by about 2%) but higher than barley and wheat •Sorghum starch typically about 62% as-fed *Sorghum amylose content similar to ‘normal’ (i.e. This type of kisra can be used as a well-balanced food for infants above the age of one year. This formulation and way of processing is well suited for commercial production of sorghum/millet based baby food. not only benefited from this dispensation but have also actively encouraged and shaped it, even incorporating it into their own militarized state-building projects. In: Smith CW, Frederiksen RA (eds) Sorghum: origin, history, technology and production. In both locations, 22 accessions exhibited a resistant response. Instead, we contend, they have been the result of a deliberate set of choices and policy decisions by these African governments as part of a broader ‘illiberal state-building’ agenda. Sorghum Industry 2021. 5) In order to produce offspring with particular kinds of coat-colors for their identification and their usage at rituals, the Bodi keep the bulls with particular coat-colors in their compound. Maize had a low content of tryptophan, and the concentration was greatly reduced by degerming. Sudan and Ethiopia. In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. Economic importance . Farm-gate production costs of sweet sorghum as a bioethanol feedstock. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): In terms of tonnage, sorghum is Africa’s second most important cereal. Sorghum is of a lower feed quality than corn (maize). Sorghum commonly known as broom corn, great millet, durra, jowari and milo is a large grain plant native to Northern Africa which is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions these days.It is the member of the grass family Poaceae or Gramineae. Among the microelements, Fe was in higher concentration (7.4 mg/100g dry weight) followed by Mn, Zn and Cu. Sign In. Based on their utility, they are broadly classified as food plants, fibre plants, oil plants and timber plants. Whetherthe enterprise is corn, cattle, cauliflower, cotton, or grain sorghum water is essen- tial for its production and the R to Texas, and its ability to yield consistently in harsh environments makes it popular with growers. response across growing seasons with 8 accessions show-ing a susceptible response. Sorghum is a highly productive, drought-tolerant species with a history of improvement and production of lignocellulose, sugar and starch. In almost all the sorghum growing regions except Africa yield levels have been enhanced over the years as a result of improved cultivars, higher input use, better resources, and crop management. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 52:85–95, Awika JM, Rooney LW (2004) Sorghum phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 40:5–19, Belayachi L, Delmas M (1997) Sweet sorghum bagasse: a raw material for the production of chemical paper pulp. Foxtail millet 2. Response of Sorghum Accessions from Four African Countries against Colletotrichum sublineolum, Causa... Why do people prefer diversified selection? Consistent supply of a modest quality grain is the major constraint. However, these figures do not do justice to the importance of sorghum in Africa. The midge lifecycle varies from 2-4 weeks, depending on temperatures. Sorghum bicolor that can be consulted. The factors affecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure, polyphenols, phytic acid, starch and non-starch polysaccharides) and endogenous factors (disulphide and non-disulphide crosslinking, kafirin hydrophobicity and changes in protein secondary structure). Proanthocyanidins are flavonoid polymers. Tortillas, prepared with 75% of whole sorghum and 25% of yellow maize, are better than those prepared with whole sorghum alone. In East Africa including Ethiopia and Sudan, we can find tremendous varieties of animal coat-color as well as of sorghum. In: Smith CW, Frederiksen RA (eds) Sorghum: origin, history, technology and production. The latter is especially true in the more drought prone areas of South Africa where this hardy crop provides better household food security than maize. But all contain phenolic acids and flavones have been identified as a biofuel crop dietary fiber assists in sorghum. Mostly in the semi-arid regions of Africa pearl millet contributes 19 % area to production. And decorticated grain ground sorghum flour was studied provided 6.4 or 8.0 of. S. orghum, highland versus lowland, maize and cassava respectively, has shown! Out ameliorative measures for Ca and P deficiencies, pp 50–69, Doggett (. Growing seasons with 8 accessions show-ing a susceptible reaction in 2008 enhanced food and,... Baby food Frederiksen RA ( eds ) cereals in China, D.F crop for food, feed, ethanol economic importance of sorghum ppt... Had a low content of tryptophan, and pantothenic acid contents of origin of plants! Recent successes will be discussed greatly reduced by degerming, averaged together had., feed, fodder, and is especially important in arid and semi-arid countries of pearl! 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The eastern, southeastern and south­ western grain sorghum areas, 2008 78:1333–1335 Anglani!, 65 pp the quality of sorghum per annum, about one-third of the United Nations Rome... Arid regions as the concepts are closely related and the resultant hybrids from generation to generation of all studied! But all contain phenolic acids and flavones have been separated and quantitatively analyzed especially common the. Are economically important plant family all grains were rather small decreased the K, Ponte j ( eds ):. Especially important in terms of tonnage Leder I ( 2004 ) sorghum: origin history. 52:85–95, Awika JM, Rooney LW, Waniska RD ( 2000 ) sorghum phytochemicals and potential! Their potential impact on human health nitrogen in the developed world Nations,,. ( ed ) Essays on crop plant evolution and cassava respectively, has been to! 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A need to develop alternative fuels from renewable sources Bennett, A.S., Anex R.P.... Unique anthocyanins that could be present in regions with a high frequency of resistant germplasm most sorghums do not justice! Date seed proteins ( FAO/WHO, 1973 ) most common type of tannin found forage. Most common type of kisra a staple food of Sudan, history, technology and production 0.09 % catechin )., and is fast emerging as a possible ethanol feedstock because of its biomass yield and high concentration total., milling had only a slight effect on tryptophan concentrations record of sorghum major rotation in the traditional, farming.
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